Important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics, and technology have been made by different kinds of people, in different cultures, at different times.
Learning Goal 2
Until recently, women and racial minorities, because of restrictions on their education and employment opportunities, were essentially left out of much of the formal work of the science establishment; the remarkable few who overcame those obstacles were even then likely to have their work disregarded by the science establishment.
Learning Goal 3
No matter who does science and mathematics or invents things, or when or where they do it, the knowledge and technology that result can eventually become available to everyone in the world.
Learning Goal 4
Scientists are employed by colleges and universities, business and industry, hospitals, and many government agencies. Their places of work include offices, classrooms, laboratories, farms, factories, and natural field settings ranging from space to the ocean floor.
Learning Goal 5ac
In research involving human subjects, the ethics of science require that potential subjects be fully informed about the risks and benefits associated with the research and of their right to refuse to participate. Because animals cannot make informed choices, special care must be taken in using them in scientific research.
Learning Goal 5b
Science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, or community residents to health or property risks without their prior knowledge and consent.
Learning Goal 6
Computers have become invaluable in science, mathematics, and technology because they speed up and extend people's ability to collect, store, compile, and analyze data; prepare research reports; and share data and ideas with investigators all over the world.
Learning Goal 7
Accurate record-keeping, openness, and replication are essential for maintaining an investigator's credibility with other scientists and society.
Learning Goal 8
Scientists' personal interests and viewpoints can influence the questions they investigate.
Learning Goal 9
Scientists are linked to other scientists worldwide both personally and through international scientific organizations.