Within a large society, there are a variety of groups whose identities are determined in part by the social class, gender, ethnicity, or the region of the country where they live.
Learning Goal 3a
Although within any society there is usually broad general agreement on what behavior is unacceptable, the standards used to judge behavior vary for different settings and subgroups, and they may change with time and different political and economic conditions.
Learning Goal 3b
Rewards and punishments vary widely among, and even within, different societies.
Learning Goal 4
Technology, especially in transportation and communication, is increasingly important in spreading ideas, values, and behavior patterns within a society and among different societies. New technology can change cultural values and social behavior.
Learning Goal 5
What is considered to be acceptable behavior varies from culture to culture and from one time period to another, but there are some behaviors that are unacceptable in almost all cultures, past and present.
For Grades: 9-12
Learning Goal 1
Cultural beliefs strongly influence the values and behavior of the people who grow up in the culture, often without their being fully aware of it. Responses to these influences varies among individuals.
Learning Goal 2
The ways that unacceptable social behavior is punished depend partly on beliefs about the purposes of punishment and about its effectiveness. Effectiveness is difficult to test scientifically because circumstances vary greatly and because legal and ethical barriers interfere.
Learning Goal 3
Social distinctions are a part of every culture, but take many different forms, ranging from rigid classes based solely on parentage to gradations based on the acquisition of skill, wealth, or education. Differences in speech, dress, behavior, or physical features are often taken by people to be signs of social class. The difficulty of moving from one social class to another varies greatly with time, place, and economic circumstances.
Learning Goal 4
Differences in the behavior of individuals arise from the interaction of heredity, culture, and experience—the effect of each depends on the other.