- Subchapter A
- Values and Attitudes
- For Grades: K-2
- Learning Goal 1
- Raise questions about the world and be willing to seek answers to these questions by making careful observations and trying things out.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 3-5
- Learning Goal 1
- Keep clear and accurate records of investigations and observations.

- Learning Goal 2
- Offer reasons for claims and consider reasons suggested by others.

- Learning Goal 3
- Records of observations are helpful when trying to recall those observations later.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 6-8
- Learning Goal 2
- Hypotheses are valuable, even if they turn out not to be true, if they lead to fruitful investigations

- Learning Goal 3
- Often different explanations can be given for the same observations, and it is not always possible to tell which one is correct.

- Learning Goal 2
- For Grades: 9-12
- Learning Goal 1
- Exhibit traits such as curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism when making investigations, and value those traits in others.

- Learning Goal 2
- View science and technology thoughtfully, being neither categorically antagonistic nor uncritically positive.

- Learning Goal 3
- In science, a new theory rarely gains widespread acceptance until its advocates can show that it is borne out by the evidence, is logically consistent with other principles that are not in question, explains more than its rival theories, and has the potential to lead to new knowledge.

- Learning Goal 4
- Scientists value evidence that can be verified, hypotheses that can be tested, and theories that can be used to make predictions.

- Learning Goal 5
- Curiosity motivates scientists to ask questions about the world around them and seek answers to those questions. Being open to new ideas motivates scientists to consider ideas that they had not previously considered. Skepticism motivates scientists to question and test their own ideas and those that others propose.

- Learning Goal 1

- For Grades: K-2

- Values and Attitudes
- Subchapter B
- Computation and Estimation
- For Grades: K-2
- Learning Goal 1
- Use whole numbers in ordering, counting, identifying, measuring, and describing objects and events.

- Learning Goal 2
- Give the sums and differences of single-digit numbers.

- Learning Goal 4
- Explain to other students how they go about solving numerical problems.

- Learning Goal 5
- Make quantitative estimates of time intervals and the lengths and weights of familiar objects.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 3-5
- Learning Goal 1
- Make calculations when necessary to solve real-world problems and decide whether to make the calculation mentally, on paper, or with the help of a calculator or computer.

- Learning Goal 2
- Use fractions and decimals, translating when necessary between commonly encountered fractions (halves, fourths, fifths, tenths, and hundredths) and their decimal equivalents.

- Learning Goal 3
- Judge whether measurements and computations of quantities such as length, weight, or time are reasonable by comparing them to familiar values.

- Learning Goal 4
- State the purpose of each step in a calculation.

- Learning Goal 5
- Read and follow step-by-step instructions in a calculator or computer manual when learning new procedures.

- Learning Goal 6
- Add or subtract any two whole numbers between 1 and 100.

- Learning Goal 7
- Multiply any two whole numbers between 1 and 10 and multiply or divide any number by 2, 10, or 100.

- Learning Goal 8
- Use a calculator to add, subtract, multiply, and divide any two whole or decimal numbers.

- Learning Goal 9
- Use appropriate units when describing quantities.

- Learning Goal 10
- Add and subtract fractions with common denominators.

- Learning Goal 11
- Make rough estimates of numerical calculations and use them to judge whether the results of a calculation done on a calculator are reasonable.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 6-8
- Learning Goal 1a
- Find what part one number is of another and express it as a fraction or a percentage.

- Learning Goal 1b
- Find what number is a given percentage of another number.

- Learning Goal 2
- Use, interpret, and compare numbers in several equivalent forms such as integers, fractions, decimals, and percents.

- Learning Goal 3
- Calculate the circumferences and areas of rectangles, triangles, and circles, and the volumes of rectangular solids.

- Learning Goal 4
- Find the mean, median, and mode of a set of data.

- Learning Goal 5
- Estimate distances and travel times from maps and the actual size of objects from scale drawings.

- Learning Goal 6
- Insert instructions into computer spreadsheet cells to program arithmetic calculations.

- Learning Goal 7a
- Use the units of the inputs to a calculation to determine what units (such as seconds, square inches, or dollars per tankful) should be used in expressing an answer.

- Learning Goal 7b
- Convert quantities expressed in one unit of measurement into another unit of measurement when necessary to solve a real-world problem.

- Learning Goal 8
- Decide what degree of precision is adequate and round off the result of calculator operations to enough significant figures to reasonably reflect those of the inputs.

- Learning Goal 9
- Express numbers like 100, 1,000, and 1,000,000 as powers of ten.

- Learning Goal 10
- Estimate probabilities of outcomes in familiar situations on the basis of history or the number of possible outcomes.

- Learning Goal 1a
- For Grades: 9-12
- Learning Goal 1
- Use appropriate ratios and proportions, including constant rates, when needed to make calculations for solving real-world problems.

- Learning Goal 2
- Find answers to real-world problems by substituting numerical values in simple algebraic formulas and check the answer by reviewing the steps of the calculation and by judging whether the answer is reasonable.

- Learning Goal 3
- Make up and write out simple algorithms for solving real-world problems that take several steps.

- Learning Goal 4
- Use computer spreadsheet, graphing, and database programs to assist in quantitative analysis of real-world objects and events.

- Learning Goal 5
- Compare data for two groups by representing their averages and spreads graphically.

- Learning Goal 6
- When describing and comparing very small and very large quantities, express them using powers-of-ten notation.

- Learning Goal 7
- Trace the source of any large disparity between an estimate and the calculated answer.

- Learning Goal 9
- Consider the possible effects of measurement errors on calculations.

- Learning Goal 1

- For Grades: K-2

- Computation and Estimation
- Subchapter C
- Manipulation and Observation
- For Grades: K-2
- Learning Goal 1
- Use hammers, screwdrivers, clamps, and scissors to shape materials and fasten them together.

- Learning Goal 2
- Assemble, take apart, and reassemble constructions using interlocking blocks or other interconnecting pieces.

- Learning Goal 3
- Make something out of paper, cardboard, cloth, wood, plastic, metal, or existing objects that can actually be used to perform a task.

- Learning Goal 4
- Measure the length in whole units of objects using rulers and tape measures.

- Learning Goal 5
- Weigh objects using a scale.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 3-5
- Learning Goal 1
- Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical constructions and repairing things.

- Learning Goal 2
- Measure out a prescribed amount of a liquid or dry powder using a measuring cup, measuring spoon, or scale.

- Learning Goal 3
- Keep written or electronic records of information so that the records are understandable weeks or months later.

- Learning Goal 6
- Use audio and video recording devices for capturing information.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 6-8
- Learning Goal 1
- Use calculators to compare amounts proportionally.

- Learning Goal 2
- Use computer databases to store and retrieve information.

- Learning Goal 3
- Make accurate measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates, and temperature by using appropriate devices.

- Learning Goal 5
- Analyze simple mechanical devices and describe what the various parts are for; estimate what the effect of making a change in one part of a device would have on the device as a whole.

- Learning Goal 6
- Make safe electrical connections with various plugs, sockets, and terminals.

- Learning Goal 7
- Select the proper tool for completing a particular task.

- Learning Goal 8
- Maintain tools and simple devices so they are in good working order.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 9-12
- Learning Goal 1
- Follow instructions in manuals or seek help from an experienced user to learn how to operate new mechanical or electrical devices.

- Learning Goal 3
- Troubleshoot common mechanical and electrical systems, check for possible causes of malfunction, and decide on that basis whether to fix it themselves or get help from an expert.

- Learning Goal 5
- Develop simple computer databases to store and retrieve information.

- Learning Goal 1

- For Grades: K-2

- Manipulation and Observation
- Subchapter D
- Communication Skills
- For Grades: K-2
- Learning Goal 1
- Describe and compare real-world objects in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion.

- Learning Goal 2
- Draw pictures that portray some features of the thing being described.

- Learning Goal 3
- Interpret pictures, drawings, and videos of real-world objects and events.

- Learning Goal 4
- Interpret oral descriptions of real-world objects and events.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 3-5
- Learning Goal 1
- Give written and oral instructions that others can follow to carry out a procedure.

- Learning Goal 2
- Make sketches or diagrams to aid in explaining procedures or ideas.

- Learning Goal 3
- Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects and events.

- Learning Goal 4
- Read simple tables and graphs produced by others and describe what the tables and graphs show.

- Learning Goal 5
- Find locations on maps and globes, interpret information displayed on maps, and use maps to navigate.

- Learning Goal 6
- Interpret written descriptions of real-world objects and events.

- Learning Goal 7
- Write a clear and accurate description of a real-world object or event.

- Learning Goal 8
- Locate information in print and electronic resources.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 6-8
- Learning Goal 1
- Organize information in simple tables and graphs and identify relationships they reveal.

- Learning Goal 2
- Read simple tables and graphs produced by others and describe in words what they show.

- Learning Goal 3
- Locate information in reference books, back issues of newspapers and magazines, compact disks, and computer databases.

- Learning Goal 4
- Understand oral, written, or visual presentations that incorporate circle charts, bar and line graphs, two-way data tables, diagrams, and symbols.

- Learning Goal 5
- Find and describe locations on maps with rectangular and polar coordinates.

- Learning Goal 6
- Present a brief scientific explanation orally or in writing that includes a claim and the evidence and reasoning that supports the claim.

- Learning Goal 7
- Seek to gain a better understanding of a scientific idea by asking for an explanation, restating an explanation in a different way, and asking questions when some aspect of an explanation is not clear.

- Learning Goal 8
- Explain a scientific idea to someone else, checking understanding and responding to questions.

- Learning Goal 9
- Prepare a visual presentation to aid in explaining procedures or ideas.

- Learning Goal 10
- Describe spatial relationships in geometric terms such as perpendicular, parallel, tangent, similar, congruent, and symmetrical.

- Learning Goal 11
- Interpret simple symbolic equations.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 9-12
- Learning Goal 1
- Make and interpret scale drawings.

- Learning Goal 3
- Choose appropriate summary statistics to describe group differences, always indicating the spread of the data as well as the data's central tendencies.

- Learning Goal 5
- Use and correctly interpret relational terms such as if… then…, and, or, sufficient, necessary, some, every, not, correlates with, and causes.

- Learning Goal 6
- Participate in group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and expressing alternative positions.

- Learning Goal 7
- Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral, written, and visual presentations.

- Learning Goal 8
- Use symbolic equations to represent relationships between objects and events.

- Learning Goal 1

- For Grades: K-2

- Communication Skills
- Subchapter E
- Critical-Response Skill
- For Grades: K-2
- Learning Goal 1
- Ask "How do you know?" in appropriate situations and attempt reasonable answers when others ask the same question.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 3-5
- Learning Goal 1
- Buttress their statements with facts found in books, articles, and databases, and identify the sources used and expect others to do the same.

- Learning Goal 2
- Recognize when comparisons might not be fair because some conditions are not kept the same.

- Learning Goal 3
- Seek reasons for believing something rather than just claiming "Everybody knows that…" or "I just know" and discount such claims when made by others.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 6-8
- Learning Goal 1
- Question claims based on vague attributions (such as "Leading doctors say…") or on statements made by celebrities or others outside the area of their particular expertise.

- Learning Goal 2
- Compare consumer products and consider reasonable personal trade-offs among them on the basis of features, performance, durability, and cost.

- Learning Goal 3
- Be skeptical of claims based on very small samples or biased samples.

- Learning Goal 5a
- Notice and criticize the reasoning in arguments in which fact and opinion are intermingled.

- Learning Goal 5b
- Notice and criticize the reasoning in arguments in which the claims are not consistent with the evidence given.

- Learning Goal 5c
- Be skeptical of claims based only on analogies.

- Learning Goal 5d
- Notice and criticize the reasoning in arguments in which no mention is made of whether control groups are used or whether the control groups are very much like the experimental group.

- Learning Goal 5e
- Be skeptical of arguments in which all members of a group (such as teenagers or chemists) are implied to have nearly identical characteristics that differ from those of other groups.

- Learning Goal 1
- For Grades: 9-12
- Learning Goal 1
- Notice and criticize claims based on the faulty, incomplete, or misleading use of numbers, such as in instances when (1) average results are reported but not the amount of variation around the average, (2) a percentage or fraction is given but not the total sample size, (3) absolute and proportional quantities are mixed, or (4) results are reported with overstated precision.

- Learning Goal 2
- Check graphs to see that they do not misrepresent results by using inappropriate scales or by failing to specify the axes clearly.

- Learning Goal 3
- Consider whether some event of interest might have occurred just by chance.

- Learning Goal 4
- Insist that the key assumptions and reasoning in any argument—whether one's own or that of others—be made explicit; analyze the arguments for flawed assumptions, flawed reasoning, or both; and be critical of the claims if any flaws in the argument are found.

- Learning Goal 5
- Notice and criticize claims that people make when they select only the data that support the claim and ignore any that would contradict it.

- Learning Goal 6a
- Notice and criticize arguments in which data, reasoning, or claims are represented as the only ones worth considering, with no mention of other possibilities.

- Learning Goal 6b
- Suggest alternative trade-offs in decisions and designs and criticize those in which major trade-offs are not acknowledged.

- Learning Goal 1

- For Grades: K-2

- Critical-Response Skill