The following is required of all research involving human beings:
  1. Researchers must take a self-study course on the ethics of using human subjects and pass a test.
  2. The procedures for the study must be approved in advance.
  3. The research subjects may not be harmed, and their privacy must be protected.
In Woodard and Henderson's study, the subjects were identified only by code numbers, and the results were published only as overall statistics - the water-use data from individual households was not released to the public.